Investigators are responsible to discuss the research with subjects, and to document the subjects' consent to participate. The consent process must be adapted to the decision-making needs of the subject. Different studies--depending on degree of therapeutic benefit and risk--require different emphasis during the consent discussion. The consent form is an important part of this process and is intended to guide the investigator and subject in the consent process.
• Federal regulations describe the required elements of consent.
- A statement that the study involves research, an explanation of the purposes and the expected duration of the subject's participation, and a description of the procedures, noting any procedures which are experimental;
- A description of reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts;
- A description of benefits to the subject or others that may reasonably be expected;
- Disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures or courses of treatment;
- A statement of the degree to which confidentiality of records identifying the subject will be maintained;
- For studies involving more than minimal risk, a description of any compensation that will be provided, and of medical treatments that are available in case of injury;
- Who to contact for answers to questions about the research, about research subjects' rights, and about research-related injury;
- A statement that participation is voluntary, that refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject would otherwise be entitled
• There are additional elements that must be included if appropriate.
- A statement that there may be unforeseeable risks to the subject (or the embryo or fetus) if the subject is or may be pregnant;
- Anticipated circumstances under which the subject's participation may be terminated without the subject's consent;
- Additional costs that may accrue to the subject as a result of participation;
- Consequences of early withdrawal from the research, and procedures for orderly termination of participation in such an event;
- A statement that any significant new findings that may relate to the subject's willingness to continue will be provided;
- The approximate number of subjects involved in the study.
• The requirement to obtain informed consent can be altered or waived if all of the following conditions pertain:
- The research involves no more than minimal risk to subjects;
- The waiver or alteration will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of subjects;
- The research could not practicably be carried out without the waiver or alteration; and
- When appropriate, subjects will be provided with additional pertinent information after participation.
Consent Summary Page
A consent form cover sheet should be included at the front of all more than minimal risk studies' consent forms. This allows prospective participants to get a quick look at the basics of what the study entails, what their choices are, and what the risks and benefits are, without having to read a lengthy, in-depth description. It allows them to determine quickly if they think they will be interested in participating. It also assists them in understanding the more complex consent discussion.
• Alternative Treatments/Alternatives to Participation
• Risks and Inconveniences
Below is a summary of the study that you are asked to participate in. This outline is meant to be a guide for you to use while considering the study and reading the consent form. It is not meant to replace the consent form, which you will have to sign if you decide to participate in the study. The consent form contains detailed information about the study and about the risks which you will need to consider before making your decision. Read the consent form carefully and discuss it with others before deciding to take part. And remember that, even if you agree to participate, you can change your mind at any time.
As with all research, this is a voluntary study, and you do not have to participate if you do not want to. Also, you may stop participating at any time.
- Alternative Treatments/Alternatives to Participation
This section is only required for treatment studies. Name available alternative treatments, including the option of not receiving treatment.
Describe the basic procedures only, not every blood test and questionnaire. Use a bulleted format.
- Risks and Inconveniences
This study includes some risks and discomforts (please refer to the consent form for further details and explanations of these risks). These include (list only the most important risks, in order of severity and frequency)
This research study is not meant to benefit you directly. If there are benefits, you may add "although some benefit is possible," and name the possible benefit(s).
You may contact the study doctor, ____________ at _________ with any questions.