Investigators are responsible to discuss the research with subjects, and to document the subjects' consent to participate. The consent process must be adapted to the decision-making needs of the subject.  Different studies--depending on degree of therapeutic benefit and risk--require different emphasis during the consent discussion. The consent form is an important part of this process and is intended to guide the investigator and subject in the consent process.

• Federal regulations describe the required elements of consent.

  1. A statement that the study involves research, an explanation of the purposes and the expected duration of the subject's participation, and a description of the  procedures, noting any procedures which are experimental;
  2. A description of reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts;
  3. A description of benefits to the subject or others that may reasonably be expected;
  4. Disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures or courses of treatment;
  5. A statement of the degree to which confidentiality of records identifying the subject will be maintained;
  6. For studies involving more than minimal risk, a description of any compensation that will be provided, and of medical treatments that are available in case of injury;
  7. Who to contact for answers to questions about the research, about research subjects' rights, and about research-related injury;
  8. A statement that participation is voluntary, that refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject would otherwise be entitled

• There are additional elements that must be included if appropriate.

  1. A statement that there may be unforeseeable risks to the subject (or the embryo or fetus) if the subject is or may be pregnant;
  2. Anticipated circumstances under which the subject's participation may be terminated without the subject's consent;
  3. Additional costs that may accrue to the subject as a result of participation;
  4. Consequences of early withdrawal from the research, and procedures for orderly termination of participation in such an event;
  5. A statement that any significant new findings that may relate to the subject's willingness to continue will be provided;
  6. The approximate number of subjects involved in the study.

• The requirement to obtain informed consent can be altered or waived if all of the following conditions pertain:

  1. The research involves no more than minimal risk to subjects;
  2. The waiver or alteration will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of subjects;
  3. The research could not practicably be carried out without the waiver or alteration; and
  4. When appropriate, subjects will be provided with additional pertinent information after participation.


Assent Form/Guidance

The following form is appropriate for 8 - 11 year old participants.  For 12 - 17 year old participants, the Assent Form can be closer to the adult Consent Form, but the language and wording should be simplified.  Imagine talking to a 12 year old when writing the form.

  1. Why is this study being done?

    We are trying to find out more about….

  2. Do I have to be in the study?

    No, you can just say no, and that will be OK.

  3. What will happen to me if I’m in the study?

    (Simple explanation of what the child will be asked to do)

  4. Will anything bad happen to me:

    (Answer honestly, if there will be any pain or discomfort, and explain what will be done to make it easier)

  5. Can this study help me?

    (Answer honestly, either that it will help the child or that it will not help the child personally, but may be helpful in some other way)

  6. Will I get anything if I decide to be in the study?

    (Answer honestly, whether they will receive payment of any kind or not.)

  7. Will people know that I am in the study?

    If you don’t want anyone to know, we won’t tell them. The researchers and your parents, will, of course, know. (If anyone else will know about their participation, you must say so.)

  8. Is there anything else that I should know about the study?

    You don’t have to be in the study if you don’t want to be. If we learn of any reasons why you might change your mind about being in the study, we will tell you. We will try to answer all of your questions.